Since sponges, as typical filter-feeders, are uncovered to a excessive load of attacking prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, they’re armed with a large arsenal of antimicrobial/cytostatic low-molecular-weight, non-proteinaceous bioactive compounds.
Here we current the first sponge agent belonging to the group of ASABF-type antimicrobial peptides.
The ASABF gene was recognized and cloned from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. The mature peptide, with a size of 64 aa residues has a predicted pI of 9.24, and contains the attribute CSα β structural motif. Consequently, the S. domuncula ASABF shares excessive similarity with the nematode ASABFs; it’s distantly associated to the defensins.
The recombinant peptide was discovered to show moreover microbicidal activity, anti-fungal activity. In addition, the peptide lyses human erythrocytes. The expression of ASABF is upregulated after publicity to the apoptosis-inducing agent 2,2′-dipyridyl.
During the means of apoptosis of floor tissue of S. domuncula, grazing gastropods (Bittium sp.) are attracted by quinolinic acid which is synthesized by means of the kynurenine pathway by the enzyme 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAD).
Finally, the gastropods are repelled from the sponge tissue by the ASABF.
It is proven that the effector peptide ASABF is sequentially expressed after the induction of the HAD gene and a caspase, as a central enzyme executing apoptosis.
Stability of ceftazidime in 1% and 5% buffered eye drops decided with HPLC methodology.
The purpose of the research was to find out with HPLC methodology the stability of ceftazidime in buffered 1% and 5% eye drops of proposed formulary composition, which had been saved for 30 days at the temperature of Four levels C and 20 levels C and protected from gentle. The 1% and 5% eye drops had been ready beneath aseptic situations by dissolving Biotum (ceftazidimum), dry injection formulation, in citrate buffer of pH 6.10-6.24.
The viscosity of the eye drops was elevated with polyvinyl alcohol, phenylmercuric borate mixed with 2-phenylethanol was used to protect the eye drops. The eye drops had been saved for 30 days in sterile glass bottles at the temperature of Four levels C and 20 levels C and protected from gentle.
The focus of ceftazidime and pyridine was analyzed concurrently with HPLC methodology each three days; pH, osmotic stress and viscosity had been examined in addition to the organoleptic evaluation of the eye drops (readability, colour, odor).
Storage temperature had the greatest influence on ceftazidime stability in the eye drops. The stability of the drops depended additionally on ceftazidime focus in the eye drops, the presence of preservatives and polyvinyl alcohol.
The time of 10% ceftazidime degradation in buffered 1% and 5% eye drops, saved at the temperature of Four levels C, was from 27 to 18 days in 1% eye drops and from 21 to 12 days in 5% eye drops, relying on their composition. In the eye drops which had been saved at the temperature of 20 levels C 10% ceftazidime degradation occurred on the third day of storage in all 1% and 5% formulary variations.